Статистика финансов и кредита. Учебник. 2-е издание (Russian Edition)

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While initially receiving the support of the Soviets, the Provisional Government proved unable to resolve many problems which had led to the February Revolution. The ruinous effects of World War I, combined with internal pressures, sparked the March uprising that led Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne. A provisional government came to power, headed by Aleksandr Kerenskiy.

Civil war broke out in between Lenin's "Red" army and various "White" forces and lasted until , when, despite foreign interventions and a war with Poland, the Bolsheviks triumphed. First among its political figures was Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Party and head of the first Soviet Government, who died in In the late s, Josef Stalin emerged as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU amidst intra-party rivalries; he maintained complete control over Soviet domestic and international policy until his death in In the s, Stalin oversaw the forced collectivization of tens of millions of its citizens in state agricultural and industrial enterprises.

Millions died in the process.

Millions more died in political purges, the vast penal and labor system, and in state-created famines. Initially allied to Nazi Germany, which resulted in significant territorial additions on its western border, the U. Twenty million Soviet citizens died during World War II in the successful effort to defeat the Axis, in addition to over two million Soviet Jews who perished in the Holocaust. After the war, the U. In , the U. On 22 June , Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history, opening the largest theater of the Second World War.

Although the German army had considerable success early on, they suffered defeats after reaching the outskirts of Moscow and were dealt their first major defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of — Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe in —45 and captured Berlin in May, In the conflict, Soviet military and civilian death tolls were The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged superpower.

The Red Army occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including the eastern half of Germany; Stalin installed socialist governments in these satellite states. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance with the United States, which became known as the Cold War. Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, served as Communist Party leader until he was ousted in In , Brezhnev rose to become "first among equals" in a collective leadership. Brezhnev died in and was succeeded by Yuriy Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko Gorbachev introduced policies of perestroika restructuring and glasnost openness.

But his efforts to reform the creaky Communist system from within failed. The people of the Soviet Union were not content with half-freedoms granted by Moscow; they demanded more and the system collapsed. Boris Yeltsin was elected the first president of the Russian Federation in Gorbachev resigned as Soviet President on December 25, Eleven days later, the U.

After the December dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation became its successor state, inheriting its permanent seat on the UN Security Council, as well as the bulk of its foreign assets and debt. By the fall of , politics in Russia reached a stalemate between President Yeltsin and the parliament.

The parliament had succeeded in blocking, overturning, or ignoring the President's initiatives on drafting a new constitution, conducting new elections, and making further progress on democratic and economic reforms. In a dramatic speech in September , President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament and called for new national elections and a new constitution.

The standoff between the executive branch and opponents in the legislature turned violent in October after supporters of the parliament tried to instigate an armed insurrection. Yeltsin ordered the army to respond with force to capture the parliament building and crush the insurrection. In December , voters elected a new parliament and approved a new constitution that had been drafted by the Yeltsin government. Yeltsin remained the dominant political figure, although a broad array of parties, including ultra-nationalists, liberals, agrarians, and communists, had substantial representation in the parliament and competed actively in elections at all levels of government.

Putin moved quickly to reassert Moscow's control over the regions, whose governors had confidently ignored edicts from Boris Yeltsin. He won enactment of liberal economic reforms that rescued a faltering economy and stopped a spiral of hyperinflation.

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Putin achieved wide popularity by stabilizing the government, especially in marked contrast to what many Russians saw as the chaos of the latter Yeltsin years. The economy grew both because of rising oil prices and in part because Putin was able to achieve reforms in banking, labor, and private property. During this time, Russia also moved closer to the U. However, U. Relations during the first few months of his presidency were affected by the August Russia-Georgia war and subsequent decision by Russia to recognize the territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

As a result, U. With the change of U. Located in the northern and middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, most of Russia is much closer to the North Pole than to the equator. Individual country comparisons are of little value in gauging Russia's enormous size slightly less than twice that of the United States and diversity.

The country's Its European portion, which occupies a substantial part of continental Europe, is home to most of Russia's industrial and agricultural activity. Russia's girth is impressive by any measure.

From west to east, the country stretches from Kaliningrad the exclave separated by the secession of Lithuania from the then-Soviet Union to Ratmanov Island one of the Diomede Islands in the Bering Strait. This distance is roughly equivalent to the distance from Edinburgh, Scotland, to Nome, Alaska.

From north to south, the country ranges from the northern tip of the Russian Arctic islands at Franz Josef Land to the southern tip of the Republic of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea, spanning about 4, kilometers of extremely varied, often inhospitable terrain. Extending for 57, kilometers, the Russian border is the world's longest, a source of substantial concern for national security in the post-Soviet era.


Virtually all of the lengthy northern coast is well above the Arctic Circle; except for the port of Murmansk—which receives currents that are somewhat warmer than would be expected at that latitude, due to the effects of the Gulf Stream—that coast is locked in ice much of the year. Thirteen seas and parts of three oceans—the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific—wash Russian shores. Russia is the largest country in the world. Russian art has been extremely influential, and is considered a source of great pride to Russians.

Russians are also known for their sense of humour. Russian literature has been greatly influential to world literature. Russia has also been home to some very famous classical music composers, another great source of national pride. Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture until the Fall of Constantinople.

Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects introduced Renaissance trends. The reigns of Ivan the Terrible and Boris Godunov saw the development of tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral, as shown on this page. In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the s. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. During the reign of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I, the city of Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture; the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and Russian Revival.

A Matryoshka doll is a Russian nesting doll. A set of Matryoshka dolls consist of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort inside. It has in turn another figure inside, and so on. The number of nested figures is usually six or more. The shape is mostly cylindrical, rounded at the top for the head and tapered towards the bottom, but little else. The dolls have no extremities, except those that are painted.

The true artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be extremely elaborate. The theme is usually peasant girls in traditional dress, but can be almost anything; for instance, fairy tales or Soviet leaders. Other forms of Russian handicraft include: Gzhel, Khokhloma, Pisanka. Russian icon painting was inherited from the art of the Byzantine churches, and it soon became an offshoot version of the mosaic and fresco traditions.

Icon paintings in Russia attempted to help people with their prayers without idolizing the figure in the painting. The most comprehensive collection of Icon art is found at the Tretyakov Gallery.

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Rather than being mere imitations, Russian icons have a distinctive style; Andrei Rublev was particularly important to the icon movement. The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to - although some place its beginning as early as and ending as late as The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, and futurism.

The Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of and , at which point the ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged state-sponsored direction of Socialist Realism.

During the Russian Revolution a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Proletarskie kulturno-prosvetitelnye organizatsii" Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations. A prominent theorist of this movement was Alexander Bogdanov. Initially, Narkompros ministry of education , which was also in charge of the arts, supported Proletkult.

Although Marxist in character, the Proletkult gained the disfavor of many party leaders, and by it had declined considerably. It was eventually disbanded by Stalin in De facto restrictions on what artists could paint were abandoned by the late s. While Russia was involved in filmmaking as early as most of the other nations in the West, it only came into prominence during the s when it explored editing as the primary mode of cinematic expression.

Because of the depletion of resources due to World War I, Russian film schools would take copies of D. Griffith's Intolerance and re-cut it as an exercise in creating meaning. Although Russian language films predominated, several republics developed lively and unique cinemas, while others did not. Most notable for their republican cinema were Armenia, Georgia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and, to a lesser degree, Belarus and Moldova. Since the dissolution of The Soviet Union, Russian cinema has seen a time of great transformation. Although still largely funded by the state, the topics and intended audience have been updated.

During the '90s, Russian film-making decreased sharply, going from hundreds per year to the double-digits. However, recent years have brought increased viewer-ship and subsequent prosperity to the industry through exploration of contemporary subjects in the film. Although its audience has decreased, the Russian cinema still tends to cover serious and sometimes philosophical issues.